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The History of Eau de Cologne古龍水的歷史

“Eau de cologne” is a French phrase that means "water from Cologne". When people talk about eau de cologne today, they're referring to a perfume with a concentration of 2-5%. Eau de cologne is a mix of alcohol and essential oils. Sometimes, the word "cologne" is used by itself to refer to men's fragrances.

“Eau de cologne”是一個法語短語,意思是“來自科隆的水”。當人們今天談論古龍水時,他們指的是濃度為 2-5% 的香水。古龍水是酒精和精油的混合物。有時,“古龍水”這個詞本身用來指代男士香水。




Johann Maria Farina was the first person to mix eau de cologne in the region of Cologne, Germany in 1709. He was originally from Italy and felt homesick in a new country. He created eau de cologne as a scent to remind himself of home. Farina wore his cologne in a necklace. The first eau de cologne was derived from a combination of various essential oils, such as bergamot, naroli, grapefruit, orange, lemon, and tangerine. Eau de cologne is one of the oldest perfumes in the world. Back then, eau de cologne was sold to royal households. A government employee would have had to spend half of his salary to afford just one bottle of the fragrance. At the time, the ability to standardize a scent and produce it on a large scale was revolutionary.

Johann Maria Farina 是 1709 年在德國科隆地區調配古龍水的第一人。他最初來自意大利,在一個陌生的國家感到想家。他創造了古龍水作為一種香味來提醒自己家。法里納把他的古龍水戴在項鍊上。第一款古龍水源自各種精油的組合,如佛手柑、納若利、葡萄柚、橙子、檸檬和橘子。古龍水是世界上最古老的香水之一。當時,古龍水被賣給了皇室。一名政府僱員將不得不花費一半的工資才能買一瓶香水。當時,將氣味標準化並大規模生產的能力是革命性的。


In general, eau de cologne is a type of perfume. The word perfume comes from the Latin phrase "per fumus" which means through smoke. Many different cultures experimented in the making of perfumes. Perfume making was a common practice under the Roman Empire, the Persian Empire, and the Islamic Caliphates. Historically, perfumes were made from incense. This is in contrast to eau de cologne, which has an alcohol base.

一般來說,古龍水是一種香水。香水這個詞來自拉丁語“per fumus”,意思是通過煙霧。許多不同的文化都在嘗試製造香水。在羅馬帝國、波斯帝國和伊斯蘭哈里發時期,香水製作是一種常見的做法。歷史上,香水是由香製成的。這與古龍水形成鮮明對比,古龍水以酒精為基礎。



The earliest evidence of perfume making was during the Bronze Age, circa 4000 BCE. Archaeologists uncovered an industrial-size factory. Even the Bible, in the book of Exodus, describes the use of perfume as an exclusive fragrance for priests. This perfume was derived from cinnamon, cassia, myrrh, and cane.

香水製作的最早證據是在大約公元前 4000 年的青銅時代。考古學家發現了一家工業規模的工廠。甚至聖經,在出埃及記中,都將香水描述為祭司的專屬香水。這種香水來自肉桂、肉桂、沒藥和甘蔗。



The first known individual perfume maker was a Tapputi, a Mesopotamian chemist. She used solvents to extract scents sometime around 1200 BCE. The Hindus of the Indus civilization in greater India also had a documented history of perfume during the period of 3300 BCE to 1300 BCE. They created a fragrance based on essential oils called ittar. Varahamihira wrote about the use of perfumes for members of the royal household and their harems in his book the Brihat-Samhita. Archaeologists later found terracotta jars that were used to store perfumes.

第一個已知的個人香水製造商是美索不達米亞化學家 Tapputi。她在公元前 1200 年左右的某個時候使用溶劑提取氣味。大印度印度河文明的印度教徒在公元前 3300 年至公元前 1300 年期間也有記載的香水歷史。他們創造了一種基於名為 ittar 的精油的香水。 Varahamihira 在他的書《Brihat-Samhita》中寫到了皇室成員及其后宮使用香水的情況。考古學家後來發現了用來存放香水的陶罐。




Islamic civilization contributed significantly to the art of perfume making. This is because alchemy and chemistry saw great advances during the peak of the Islamic empires. Muslims used steam distillation to extract fragrances from oils and raw materials. The Middle Eastern Arab and Persian civilizations were located at a trade crossroads between the Far East and Europe. Consequently, they were able to acquire more fragrance materials such as spices, herbs, resins, and scented woods. If a plant used for perfume wasn't native to the region, as jasmine and rose were, the Muslims imported the plant and cultivated it locally. The prophet Muhammad once said that using perfume was compulsory for Muslims if it was available. Using perfume was as important as bathing and brushing one's teeth. Al Kindi wrote a book containing hundreds of perfume recipes. The Persian chemist Ibn Sina was the first person to distill flowers to extract their oils. Following his discovery, rose water became a popular scent. Perfumes made in the Islamic world made their way to the royal courts of Europe through trade.

伊斯蘭文明對香水製作藝術做出了重大貢獻。這是因為煉金術和化學在伊斯蘭帝國的鼎盛時期取得了長足的進步。穆斯林使用蒸汽蒸餾從油和原材料中提取香味。中東阿拉伯和波斯文明位於遠東和歐洲之間的貿易十字路口。因此,他們能夠獲得更多的香料材料,如香料、草藥、樹脂和有香味的木材。如果用於香水的植物不是該地區的原生植物,如茉莉花和玫瑰,穆斯林就會進口這種植物並在當地種植。先知穆罕默德曾經說過,如果可以的話,穆斯林必須使用香水。使用香水與洗澡和刷牙一樣重要。 Al Kindi 寫了一本包含數百種香水配方的書。波斯化學家伊本·西納是第一個用蒸餾法提取花油的人。在他的發現之後,玫瑰水成為一種流行的香味。伊斯蘭世界製造的香水通過貿易進入歐洲皇室。



The French are famous for their perfumes, but they were not the first Europeans to produce them. The Hungarians made a perfume called "Hungary Water" following an order from Hungary's Queen Elizabeth. The chemists of the Italian Renaissance were quite adept at making perfumes. Eventually, France did become the continent's center for perfume production. King Louis XIV and King Louis XV were obsessed with perfumes. They ordered the use of perfume to scent everything, from clothes to furniture. Many courtiers washed their hands and bathed with perfume instead of soap and water. To supplement the demand for perfumes, farmers began growing raw materials in the Grasse region of France. France continues to be a global epicenter for perfume manufacturing until today.

法國人以其香水而聞名,但他們並不是第一批生產香水的歐洲人。匈牙利人奉匈牙利女王伊麗莎白的命令,製作了一款名為“匈牙利水”的香水。意大利文藝復興時期的化學家非常擅長製造香水。最終,法國確實成為了歐洲大陸的香水生產中心。路易十四國王和路易十五國王都痴迷於香水。他們下令使用香水來給所有東西聞香,從衣服到家具。許多朝臣洗手並用香水而不是肥皂和水洗澡。為了補充對香水的需求,農民開始在法國格拉斯地區種植原材料。直到今天,法國仍然是全球香水製造中心。




In England, the royal households of King Henry VIII and Queen Elizabeth I also promoted the use of perfumes. Queen Elizabeth I, in particular, was averse to bad smells, so she demanded that public places be scented with perfume.

在英國,亨利八世國王和伊麗莎白一世女王的王室也提倡使用香水。尤其是伊麗莎白一世女王,她討厭難聞的氣味,因此她要求公共場所用香水散發香味。

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